Autoimmune Disease

STF is made up of two fractions:

  1. INDUCER (provides overall readiness of the immune system to repel aggression)
  2. REGULATOR fraction (is to calm the immune system back to a normal level preventing autoimmune disorders

STF are universal immunocorrectors as they induce and normalize immune respond.

Autoimmune disease is when the immune system is overactive and mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue.

Source: Scientific Animations.

Super Transfer Factor are excellent specific inhibitor of protein-protein interactions and, therefore, are valuable specific modulators of protein-mediated signaling of the immune system.

The effect of STF based on reinstating immune balance without causing global immune suppression. The technology uses specific peptides, which induce an antigen-specific expansion of regulatory T cells – the key mediators of immune tolerance. These cells are able to suppress autoantigen-specific helper T cells which produce proinflammatory cytokines and are responsible for immune pathology in autoimmune diseases.

The results revealed a significant reduction of autoimmune disease clinical appearance. They also showed a strong trend towards improvement in diagnostic tests, analysis and scores that is used as an indicator of improvement in disability.

The modern biological approach showed stabilization of symptoms and regression of diseases when comprehensive and complex course of therapies applied.

Source: Randall Stevens of Roche, presentation in a 6 November 2006 Teleconference

The column chart represents that most autoimmune diseases affect women more than men. More common autoimmune diseases strike woman three times more than men, only two of the diseases show roughly equal gender percentages and only one occurs more often in men. Relevant studies shows that, women have enhanced immune system compared to men, they have stronger inflammatory responses when their immune system are triggered and inflammation plays a key role in many autoimmune diseases, it increase women’s resistance to many types of infection but also makes them more susceptible to Autoimmune Disease.

Short list of common Autoimmune diseases where STF along with other biological approaches is recommended:

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is primarily an inflammatory disorder of the brain and spinal cord in which focal lymphocytic infiltration leads to damage of myelin and axons. Over time the pathological changes get dominated by widespread microglial activation associated with extensive and chronic neurodegeneration, clinical outcome of which is progressive accumulation of disability. Multiple sclerosis is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic-risk profiles. Traditional therapies reduce the frequency of new episodes but do not reverse fixed deficits and have questionable effects on the long-term accumulation of disability and disease progression. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).

MS is mostly common in females than males about 2 to 3 times more common in relapsing-remitting MS. This is also true for other autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis.

MS can affect people of any age. However, it’s most commonly diagnosed in people between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The average age when MS symptoms first appear is between the ages of 30 and 35 years. Researchers documented that MS affects different age groups differently. For instance, people who are diagnosed when they are 50 years or older typically have a more progressive disease course.

There is currently no cure for MS, though some medications are available that can alleviate symptoms and slow disease progression, reduce the number of relapses or attacks, and to reduce their severity when they occur. To accomplish this, medications are given by injection. High doses of steroids (given either intravenously or orally) are used to treat relapses.

Source: Dr Zara Kassam (Drug Target Review)

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease in which the synovial membrane inflames, causing the joints to lose mobility and swell. Gradually, inflammation destroys the ends of the bone and the cartilage covering the articular surfaces. The structure and functions of the ligaments that give strength to the joint are impaired, and it begins to deform.

Most often the disease affects several joints and usually begins on one of the smaller ones, the hand or foot. As a rule, the disease develops symmetrically. The inflammatory process may involve the eyes, lungs, heart, and blood vessels.

  • the joints become loose, sore and swollen;
  • in areas experiencing pressure (for example, on the elbows), characteristic nodules appear.

Since the disease brings pain and mobility at the same time, patients often become depressed.

Increased mortality due to damage to the heart, infections, gastrointestinal bleeding; also, drug therapy, comorbidities and the development of malignant neoplasms can have a negative effect.

Approximately 10% of patients have severe disability despite adequate treatment. The prognosis is worse in Caucasians and women, with the development of subcutaneous nodules, the onset of the disease in adulthood, the presence of lesions of 20 or more joints, early appearance of erosion, in smokers, as well as with high values ​​of ESR, RF and ACCP.

Rheumatoid arthritis is incurable. Modern medicine helps to take the symptoms of the disease under control and prevent the disease from progressing so that the joints do not collapse further.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Research studies also continue to show a rise in the number of people living with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract; it’s often results in complication requiring hospitalizations and surgical procedures. Two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are Crohn’s disease (CD) and Ulcerative colitis (UC) which are characterized by an abnormal response to the body immune system.

Pathophysiology of Crohn’s disease: Crohn’s disease begins with cryptocurrency and the formation of abscesses, which then progress to the formation of individual aphthous ulcerations. Further changes from the side of the mucous can take on the characteristic features of the “cobblestone pavement”.

Transmural spread of inflammatory changes is accompanied by d, thickening of the intestinal wall and mesentery. The mesenteric fat extends to the serous intestinal lining. Mesenteric lymph nodes may increase. Common inflammation can lead to thickening of the muscle plate of the mucous membrane, fibrosis and the development of strictures, which causes intestinal obstruction. Often develops abscesses and fistulas, extending into the surrounding organs – the intestinal loops, bladder, and psoas muscle. Fistulas can open to the surface of the abdominal skin. Regardless of the degree of intraperitoneal disease, in 25–33% of cases, perianal fistulas and abscesses are formed; these complications are often the most uncomfortable manifestations of Crohn’s disease.

Forecast: Crohn’s disease is practically not curable and is characterized by alternating exacerbations and remissions. Possible severe with frequent debilitating periods of pain. However, with a reasonable selection of drugs and, if indicated, surgical treatment, it is possible to maintain a satisfactory quality of life and adaptive capabilities in most patients.

Source: Dr. Tonia Young-Fadok, Colon and Rectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona

The death rate for Crohn’s disease is quite low. The most common cause of increased mortality associated with CD is the development of malignant gastrointestinal tumors, including cancer of the colon and small intestine.

Pathophysiology: Ulcerative colitis usually begins with a lesion of the rectum. The process may remain localized at this level (ulcerative proctitis) or spread in the proximal direction, in some cases the entire colon is affected. In rare cases, colitis from the outset covers most of the colon. Inflammation in the framework of UC affects the mucous membrane and submucosal layer, characterized by a clear boundary between healthy and diseased tissue. The muscular layer is affected only with severe course. In the early stages of the disease, the mucous membrane is erythematous, the surface is covered with small granules, easily vulnerable, the normal vascular pattern disappears, and scattered hemorrhagic elements are often identified. Severe forms are characterized by large ulcerations of the mucosa with copious purulent discharge. Islets with respect to intact or inflamed hyperplastic mucosa (pseudopolyps) project above the ulcerated surface. Formation of fistulas and abscesses in this case usually is not observed.

Forecast: As a rule, ulcerative colitis has a chronic course with alternating exacerbations and remissions. In about 10% of cases, the first attack proceeds with lightning speed, with massive blood loss, perforation, sepsis and toxemia. In the other 10% of patients after a single attack, there is a complete recovery.

With limited ulcerative proctitis, the prognosis will be the better. The probability of pronounced systemic manifestations, the development of complications associated with toxemia, and malignant degeneration is small, and the increase in the prevalence of the process at a later time is observed only in 20-30% of cases. Surgical treatment is rarely required, life expectancy is not different from the norm. In some cases, symptoms may persist and not respond to treatment. Extensive forms of ulcerative colitis can manifest from an isolated lesion of the rectum, and then spread proximally, so proctitis can be considered localized only after ≥ 6 months of the disease. Localized forms that become common in the future tend to be more severe and are more resistant to treatment. Approximately one-third of patients with extensive ulcerative colitis need surgical intervention. Colon cancer: The risk of colon cancer is clearly associated with the duration of ulcerative colitis and the extent of the lesion, but there is no clear dependence on the clinical severity of exacerbations.


Psoriasis is a skin disease that manifests itself as spots of red, thickened and scaly skin on various parts of the body. In the areas affected by the disease, new cells form faster than old ones peel off, so an excess of cells gradually accumulate, forming thick skin plaques. About 4% of the world’s population suffers from psoriasis. It can appear at any age from birth to old age, but most of all, psoriasis “loves” young people. This is evidenced by the fact that 70% of patients manifest psoriasis before the age of 20 years. This disease is non-infectious, but it can be inherited. Exacerbations can provoke a variety of external and internal factors: stress, skin trauma, the use of certain medications (often antibiotics), alcohol abuse, infectious diseases (caused by streptococcus viruses) and others. There are many different remedies and methods for the treatment of psoriasis, but taking into account the chronic course of the disease andrecurrence of psoriasis – the therapy of this pathology is often difficult. A complete recovery is currently impossible, but more or less prolonged remissions, including lifelong, are possible. However, there is always a risk of recurrence.

The main goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency of relapse of the disease, prevent the risk of complications and improve the quality of life of patients. As a rule, this is achieved through dynamic follow-up, the use of new modern methods of treatment (immunobiological preparations, the method of light therapy, ozone therapy, etc.), and the holding of rehabilitation measures.

Complications of disease: Approximately 1 out of 10 patients with psoriasis develop some form of arthritis, which usually affects the fingers and knees. If untreated, it can be life threatening.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes) is an autoimmune disease of the endocrine system, the main diagnostic feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar), polyuria, as a result of this, thirst; weight loss; excessive or decreased appetite; severe general fatigue of the body; stomach ache. With long-term manifestation of the disease and the absence of diagnosis of the disease poisoning begins with the production of fats breakdown – often manifested as the smell of acetone from the skin and from the mouth.

Unlike type 2 diabetes, it is characterized by absolute (rather than relative) insulin deficiency caused by the destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but most people get sick at a young age (children, teenagers, adults younger than 30), and may be congenital. Recently, there has been an increase in the upper age limit and, increasingly, type 1 diabetes mellitus is falling in people from 30 to 40-45 years old. The exact causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown.

Type 1 Diabetes is very common in some primary immunodeficiency diseases. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes T1D disease is increasing worldwide, new case are doubling every 20 year especially in United States, Europe and Australia and what is more alarming is that this disease is occurring much earlier in life. In European, the incidence is increasing at a rate of 5.4% annually in children one to five years of age. In 2013, there were 2,323 new cases equating to 11 cases per 100,000 populations. Of these, 59% were males (1,366) and 41% were females (954), more than half (52%) of all new cases were in young people under 18 years. Diabetes have higher prevalence in males compared to females may due to the fat distribution, as male tend to distribute fat more readily around the liver and other body organs, while female tend to deposit fat under the skin such as hips.

A link has been established between the disease and a variety of genes (both recessive and dominant). The likelihood of developing type 1 diabetes increases by 4–10% (relative to the population average) if one of the parents suffers from this disease. The prevalence of the disease among people of the Caucasian race in different countries differs tenfold. It has been observed that in people who migrated from areas with a low incidence of diabetes in areas with a high incidence, type 1 diabetes is more common than among those who stayed in the country of birth. According to one theory, an autoimmune reaction on pancreatic cells is provoked by viruses that infect these cells. The effect of Coxsackie and rubella viruses is suspected, but no conclusive evidence has been presented.

Pathogenesis: Insulin deficiency in the body develops due to its insufficient secretion by β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Due to insulin deficiency, insulin-dependent tissues (hepatic, fatty and muscular) lose their ability to absorb blood glucose and, as a result, blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) increase – a cardinal diagnostic sign of diabetes mellitus. Due to insulin deficiency in adipose tissue, the breakdown of fats is stimulated, which leads to an increase in their level in the blood, and in muscle tissue – the breakdown of proteins is stimulated, which leads to an increased flow of amino acids into the blood. Substrates of catabolism of fats and proteins are transformed by the liver into ketone bodies, which are used by insulin-independent tissues (mainly the brain) to maintain energy balance against the background of insulin deficiency. Glycosuria is an adaptation mechanism for removing elevated glucose from the blood when the glucose level exceeds the threshold value for the kidneys (about 10 mmol / l). Glucose is an osmo-active substance and an increase in its concentration in the urine stimulates increased excretion of water (polyuria), which ultimately can lead to dehydration of the body, if the loss of water is not compensated by adequate increased fluid intake (polydipsia). Along with increased water loss with urine, mineral salts are also lost – deficiency of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium cations, chlorine anions, phosphate and bicarbonate develops.

The clinical manifestations of the disease are caused not only by the type of diabetes, but also by the duration of its course, the degree of compensation of carbohydrate metabolism, the presence of vascular complications and other disorders. Conventionally, clinical symptoms are divided into two groups:

  • symptoms indicating decompensation of the disease;
  • symptoms associated with the presence and severity of diabetic angiopathies, neuropathies and other complicating or concomitant pathologies.


  • Ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma
  • Hypoglycemic coma (in case of an overdose of insulin)
  • Diabetic micro-and macroangiopathy – a violation of vascular permeability, increasing their fragility, increasing the tendency to thrombosis, to the development of atherosclerosis
  • Diabetic polyneuropathy – peripheral nerve polyneuritis, pain along the nerve trunks, paresis and paralysis;
  • Diabetic arthropathy – joint pain, “crunching”, limiting mobility, reducing the amount of synovial fluid and increasing its viscosity;
  • Diabetic ophthalmopathy – early development of cataracts (lens opacities), retinopathy (retinal lesions);
  • Diabetic nephropathy – kidney damage with the appearance of protein and blood cells in the urine, and in severe cases with the development of glomerulonephritis and renal failure;
  • Diabetic encephalopathy – changes in the psyche and mood, emotional lability or depression, symptoms of CNS intoxication

The complex approach with STF and other biomeds helps patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus continue high quality of life in every stage of disease and foresee complications.

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